Wednesday, August 8, 2012
Tuesday, August 7, 2012
4,300 sq. ft.
Pedigree: In 1959 architect Rodney Walker, best known for his three contributions to the Case Study House Program, erected this hilltop retreat as his personal residence. Modeled after an equilateral triangle, the ethereal structure merges indoor and outdoor spaces using glass curtain walls and pointed overhangs.
Property Values: The three-and-a-half-acre plot, accessible by a winding private drive, enjoys sweeping views of the surrounding valley.
Talking Point: Vintage linoleum and wood surfaces and a paint-box color palette lend midcentury cool to the open floor plan.
Monday, August 6, 2012
Several people are feared dead after a ferry carrying as many as 350 passengers on board sank off the north coast of Papua New Guinea, Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard said on Thursday.
“There has been a boat go down in Papua New Guinea with, as we understand it, 350 people on board,” Ms. Gillard said.
“This is obviously a major tragedy... There is likely to be a very high death toll,” she was quoted as saying by the Australian news agency AAP.
Rescue workers have rescued 28 people from the water so far, according to a maritime official, who said hundreds of passengers were still unaccounted for.
“They have rescued 28 people who are now on board one vessel,” Rescue co—ordinator Captain Nurur Rahman said.
Captain Rahman said four merchant ships were diverted to the scene by Australian authorities to help with the rescue.
“I cannot confirm or deny the 350 missing number, it is hearsay. I have not seen the manifest as yet, but it is likely around 300.”
A distress signal was sent from the MV Rabaul Queen this morning when travelling between Lae and the West New Britain town of Kimbe in the east of the Pacific nation today, PNG’s National Maritime Safety Authority said.
“We have been asked to provide assistance to PNG and we are providing assistance to PNG... Australian diplomatic staff are monitoring the situation but there have so far been no reports of Australians on board,” Ms. Gillard said.
“But given the likely very high loss of life here, I think when this news comes to the attention of Australians around the country, they will be thinking about the people of PNG as they respond to this tragedy,” she said.
Peapack, New Jersey
14 baths, 5 half baths
60,000 sq. ft.
Pedigree: Designed by Carrère and Hastings, the venerable architecture firm behind the New York Public Library, this secluded Beaux Arts mansion was constructed in 1903 for financier C. Ledyard Blair. The house, which has undergone an incomplete restoration, still exudes Gilded Age grandeur thanks to bespoke mantels, elaborate moldings, and imported marble.
Property Values: The 34 acres feature Italianate gardens by James Lyle Greenleaf.
Talking Point: With its unique past—reclusive nuns owned the place for some 50 years—Blairsden, as the house is called, has long been the subject of local lore.
Sunday, August 5, 2012
Three policemen were killed and another injured when Taliban militants attacked a police van in Pakistan's restive northwest today, officials said. The militants lobbed grenades at the van and then fired at it with automatic weapons in Lakki Marwat area of
District police chief Gulzar Ali confirmed that three policemen were killed and another injured.
The Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan claimed responsibility for the attack, saying it was carried out in retaliation for arrests made by security forces during a recent search operation.
The attack was the latest assault in a recent spike in Taliban violence in northwest Pakistan.
Parts of the volatile tribal belt have witnessed fierce fighting in recent days.
Do you know that the carbon credit market is worth a couple of billions! Information about carbon credits explained further helps you to know more about this popular term in the financial market...
Increasing levels of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere has raised world wide concerns regarding global warming. In the international carbon trading market, control on the rate of emission of carbon dioxide has become a hotly debated topic. Carbon credits explained by scholars in carbon market is defined as a generic term that can be referred to any legal document or certifications that restricts emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. Governments and large corporations buy carbon credits as it is their moral responsibility to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. Still wondering what are carbon credits? Read further...
What Are Carbon Credits?
Mathematically, one carbon credit is awarded to an organization for preventing the emission of one metric ton of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It is called a CO2e (CO2 equivalent). In the year 1990, the world's major polluters were identified by a study based on CO2 emissions. Based on common census, nearly 37 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, in a world summit in Japan. It however, came into force on February 16, 2005 after Russia also ratified it. The long hiatus between the signing and execution of Kyoto protocol was due to the fact that at least 55 countries were required to sign it, before it must come into existence. Moreover, the global production of these 55 parties must be at least 55% of total global green house gas production.
The participating countries that ratified Kyoto protocol have pledged not only to reduce emissions of CO2 but also of four other green house gases; methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2)O, Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). If the countries that have ratified Kyoto protocol go above their target emissions, they have to buy "credits" from other countries that have been able to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, significantly.
The Kyoto protocol was introduced under the chapter of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC). As per the Kyoto protocol industrialized countries have promised to lower CO2 emissions by 5% by 2008 -2012. So are you getting what are carbon credits? More information about carbon credits explained further will help you to understand this environmental economics term in a more enlightened way.
Buying and Selling Carbon Credits
Trading carbon credits is quite a common financial bargain for various countries. A country is given carbon credit for every metric ton of carbon dioxide that it doesn't allow to go into the atmosphere. This can done through many processes like hydro power projects that replace coal fueled plants or by planting trees and starting afforestation projects.
To get your queries regarding carbon trading explained, we will help you with another example. Consider for instance, there is a steel company in a developing country that is using eco - friendly methods in its factories like wind energy generation power plants to boost its production. The steel company emission quota is 12 tons. However, if it expecting to release 14 tons of carbon dioxide, it can buy 2 credits from the wind generation power plants. Credits are awarded to developed countries that have been able to cut back on their emissions. Developing countries can buy credits from developed countries in case, they exceed their emission targets.
In the last segment regarding carbon credits explained, we wish to inform you that in practice, the aim of the Kyoto Protocol has been very noble. However, owing to its amazingly complex trading system, carbon credit trading has suffered flaws and lack of transparency. It is said that various large corporations put in extra money to grab carbon credits, instead of seriously trying to reduce their carbon footprints. Understanding carbon trading is certainly not an easy task especially now, when it has been almost a decade, wherein it has failed to a large extent.
Saturday, August 4, 2012
|Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept|
Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept
At the 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Volvo Car Corporation will unveil an innovative gasoline plug-in hybrid. The Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept is an electric car, a highly economical hybrid and a powerful high-performance car all rolled into one. At the touch of a button, the driver decides how the available power from the combination of the high-performance gasoline engine and the electric motor is to be utilized.
"The technology in the XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept is as ingenious as it is unique," says Stefan Jacoby, President and CEO of Volvo Car Corporation. "You can make really green progress on the road without compromising on any of the luxury car's renowned properties. No other manufacturer has succeeded in delivering fuel economy and electrical range on this level in a capable, spacious performance car with 350 horsepower on tap."
"This world-class gasoline plug-in hybrid technology, featuring a state-of-the-art four-cylinder engine from our upcoming Volvo Environmental Architecture engine family, will reach our American showrooms in a couple of years. However, it is too early to say which model will be the first to feature this solution," Stefan Jacoby says.
Pure Hybrid Power - three cars in one
The driver chooses the driving mode via three buttons on the instrument panel. The buttons give the car three distinct temperaments: Pure, Hybrid or Power.
In Pure mode the car is powered solely by its electric motor as much as possible. The operational range is up to 35 miles (charge depleting range, U.S certification driving cycle) with zero tailpipe emissions in urban traffic. The range according to the European certification driving cycle NEDC is 45 km.
Hybrid mode is the standard setting whenever the car is started. The gasoline engine and electric motor cooperate to provide maximum driving pleasure with minimum environmental impact. According to the European certification driving cycle NEDC, CO2 emissions are 53 g/km (2.3 l/100 km) - which translates into fuel economy of over 100 mpg. Using the U.S certification standards, which include emissions from the production of the electric energy, the combined fuel economy in continuous driving is 50 mpg. The car has a total operating range of up to 600 miles (960 km).
In Power mode, the technology is optimized to create maximum possible power. The gasoline engine with 280 hp and 380 Nm (280 lb.-ft.) is combined with the electric motor with 70 hp and 200 Nm (148 lb.-ft.). The electric motor's instant torque delivery contributes to the car's acceleration from 0 to 60 mph in 5.8 seconds (0-100 km/h in 6.1 seconds).
Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept (2012)
2012 Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept
Four cylinders with the same power as a six-cylinder unit
The front wheels of the Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept are powered by a four-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from the forthcoming VEA (Volvo Environmental Architecture) engine family. This engine produces 280 horsepower and maximum torque of 380 Nm (280 lb.-ft.). Power delivery to the wheels comes via a newly developed eight-speed automatic transmission.
"In the XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept we demonstrate that our forthcoming four-cylinder engines offer the same high performance as today's sixes. At the same time, their fuel consumption will be lower than in current four-cylinder engines," says Peter Mertens, Senior Vice President Research & Development at Volvo Car Corporation.
The concept car carries a "T8" badge, which emphasizes the combined 350 horsepower of the high-performance four-cylinder engine and the electric motor. This moves the car into territory previously occupied solely by eight-cylinder engines.
"It's time to stop counting cylinders," Peter Mertens says. "Four-cylinder engines are the most effective way to quickly reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption without compromising customer expectations when it comes to driving pleasure and performance."
Reduction of parts, weight and fuel consumption
VEA is a modular range of diesel and gasoline engines. The gasoline versions come with direct injection, minimized internal losses and balance shafts for maximized comfort.
Several levels of turbocharging open up for flexibility that encompasses the whole range from high power and torque variants to extremely fuel-efficient derivatives. In order to cover all customer requirements, certain engines will gain added performance via hybrid drive or other spearhead technology.
The modular format is based on a standard of 500cc (30 cubic inches) per cylinder for optimum thermodynamics. It could also be used to develop three-cylinder engines. VEA offers several advantages
The number of unique parts is reduced. This promotes manufacturing efficiency, quality assurance and efficiency of new development projects.
The new powertrains are considerably lighter than present engines with similar performance.
Fuel economy is improved by up to 35 percent compared to engines with similar performance.
Modularity and compact transverse design are also ideal for future electrification developments.
Integrated Starter Generator
The engine in the Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept has no conventional starter motor or alternator. Instead, there is an Integrated Starter motor and Generator (ISG) connected to the crankshaft, which is located between the engine and the transmission. The ISG is capable of delivering an extra 34 kW (45 hp) during acceleration. It also charges the battery during braking.
Charge the battery at home
The rear axle of the Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept is driven by an electric motor producing 70 horsepower. It is supplied with power from a 12 kWh lithium-ion battery pack installed under the floor of the load compartment.
The battery pack is recharged from a regular power outlet, at home or at a parking place. Recharging time varies with the current. If 220V is available a full charge with 12A takes just 3.5 hours. With 110V/12A a full charge takes 7.5 hours.
It is also possible while recharging the car to heat or cool the passenger compartment in order to make the start of the journey more comfortable. This also means that more battery power is available to propel the car.
The Volvo Sensus infotainment system in the XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept keeps the driver constantly updated on everything that makes the journey simpler, more efficient and more entertaining. A few examples of available information:
Best route to the destination depending on whether the driver prioritizes low energy consumption, the fastest route or the shortest distance.
Low Emission Zones where sufficient capacity is needed for running on pure electricity.
Charging stations with access to renewable electricity.
Locations along the route with access to quick-charging facilities.
The driver also can connect to the car via a mobile phone application. This offers convenient access to a wide range of data, such as the battery's charge level, remaining range, and the location and capacity of the nearest recharging station. Via the app, it is possible to verify if the charger cable is hooked up and it is also possible to pre-program the car's interior climate.
"Creating an intuitive driver's environment that always gives you access to updated, useful information is an important part of our product development. This includes that you should be as updated when the car is parked as when you're behind the wheel," says Stefan Jacoby.
The Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept is painted in a special white color and the 21-inch wheels enhance the muscular appearance. The interior features unique detailing and colors, such as sober dark-blue leather upholstery and inlays of blue-grey wood.
The instruments have been tailored to give the driver all the necessary information about petrol and electricity consumption, battery charge level, remaining range and so on.
Electric four-wheel drive
The electric four-wheel drive in the Volvo XC60 Plug-in Hybrid Concept is activated by pressing the AWD (All Wheel Drive) button. Instead of the mechanical power transfer of conventional four-wheel drive, the central control unit distributes power between the gasoline-driven front wheels and the electrically driven rear axle.
The electric four-wheel drive system has been designed to provide better traction when starting and when driving on slippery roads, for instance in snow or mud.
Saves battery power for later
The driver can choose to save battery power for later in order to drive on pure electricity later in, for example, an urban green zone or in the heart of a city. When Save is activated, the generator charges and tops up the battery pack if necessary. The aim is to ensure sufficient battery power for about 12 miles (20 km) of driving on electricity.
New Delhi In a big reprieve to Union Home Minister P Chidambaram, the Supreme Court on Thursday referred the plea to probe him in the 2G scandal to the trial court but cancelled the 122 telecom licences that were granted by former Telecom Minister A Raja.
This would mean the court holds the view that the licences were handed out irregularly.
The apex court heard petitions seeking a direction for a probe into the alleged role of Chidambaram in 2G spectrum scam and for the cancellation of 122 radiowave licences.
The role of Chidambaram in the 2G scam was raised in the Supreme Court by the petitioners who had pointed out that there was evidence on record showing that the decision regarding pricing of spectrum was taken jointly by him and Raja.
A Finance Ministry note to the PMO signed by Pranab Mukherjee was also taken on record by the apex court in which it was stated that the scam could have been averted had Chidambram suggested the policy of auction instead of first-come-first-served policy on allocation of spectrum.
The Centre and CBI had vehemently opposed any probe against Chidambram who was the Finance Minister at the time of allotment of spectrum in 2008.
They had maintained that Chidambaram was not in direct communication with the then Telecom Minister A Raja in determining the price of the radio waves.
However, Swamy and the Centre for Public Interest Litigation (CPIL) had refuted the claims of CBI and the Centre that Chidambaram was not in the picture till January, 10, 2008, when the Department of Telecommunication (DoT) headed by Raja issued 122 Letters of Intent (LoIs) to telecom companies without following the policy of auction.
Swamy and CPIL's counsel Prashant Bhushan had contended Chidambaram was "consistently" informed of what was going on and "till November 30, 2007, Chidambaram was apprised of what Raja was up to".
Swamy and Bhushan said the Finance Ministry officials were for allocation of spectrum through auction but they were overruled by Chidambaram.
Swamy said there there were documents to show that Raja and Chidambaram met four times on the issue and had a meeting of minds in the commission of the offences.
It was also alleged by the petitioners that Chidambaram had advised Raja that it was legal to "dilute" the shares by telecom companies after getting licence though which Swan Telecom and Unitech Wireless got huge profits by selling 45% and 60% respectively to two foreign firms Etisalat and Telenor.
Bhushan had said the facts stated a Finance Ministry note pointed to a "clear fact" that officials of the Finance Ministry repeatedly pointed out that spectrum allocation could not be determined by the entry fee of 2001.
"That it should be allocated through a market discovered price. It was impossible for Raja to move ahead without the concurrence of the then Finance Minister," he had said.
"Despite the fact that the Finance Secretary had taken such a strong view which had been recorded in the DoT's approach paper, Chidambaram chose to side with Raja on the issue of pricing," he had said.
In the case relating to cancellation of licenses, people from civil society also approached the apex court to reverse the decision taken by Raja for telecom licences during his tenure as Telecom Minister.
Former Chief Election Commissioner J M Lyngdoh, T S Krishnamurthy and N Gopalaswami, along with former Central Vigilance Commissioner P Shankar, moved the SC along with CPIL and Swamy.
They alleged Raja's decision was marred by "multiple illegalities, corruption and favouritism".
The proceeding in the case had witnessed a virtual telecom war with the old service providers contending spectrum alloted to them are valid and they should not be compared with new players whose licenses are under the judicial scrutiny.
The carbon credit market is rising exponentially every year given the global warming awareness. To know more about carbon credits price, read on.
Is carbon credit the new global currency? All the drawbacks and problems related to currencies like Dollars or Euros are taken care by the Certified Emission Reduction (CER) credits. It can be traded all over the world. And it is used by all the major countries more or less in similar proportion. Its unit one metric ton of carbon is universal and doesn't change from country-to-country. Moreover, its relevance is understood all over the world. Even if the question is hypothetical (or real?), one thing is for sure - carbon credits have assumed a significance we didn't think of some ten years before, and it has caused a visible rift between the industrialized and developing world. Even if the 'diplomatic' sources don't allow the differences to boil over, this one issue has polarized the world after the democracy-communism ideology cold war. With all this interesting background, let us understand what are carbon credits, in the real sense.
Contrary to the above picture, the concept of carbon credit is very beneficial and easy to understand. This concept was brought to help reduce carbon dioxide, the biggest contributor to greenhouse gases leading to global warming. A carbon footprint is measured of each company or individual or country using various carbon calculators, or a central authority is assigned for this purpose. As per the calculations, a certain number of credits are assigned to each company for a certain period of time. If the company is successful in controlling its carbon emissions under the assigned credit value, it is permitted to sell those credits in the carbon market for monetary gain. On the other hand, those companies or countries who fail to control their emissions under the required limit, need to purchase these carbon credits as a offset for the extra carbon they emitted. In a nutshell, having one carbon credit permits the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, there are three carbon credits exchange mechanisms - Joint implementation, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and International Emissions Trading (IET). These mechanisms allow the developed countries or companies with high carbon footprint to acquire carbon credits, but all differ according to the clauses of buying and selling the carbon credits. These mechanisms aim at achieving carbon neutrality, which means there should be net zero carbon footprint.
Carbon Credits Price
One carbon credit (or carbon 'offset') is a closely regulated certificate representing a reduction of one metric ton of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere. In dollar terms, carbon credits price per ton is about $15 to $40. This cost of carbon credits fluctuate on a large scale over the continents and over small time periods, and hence, is one of the dangers of the climate change policy. That means, even though the unit 'one ton of carbon dioxide' remains unchanged, the Dollar and Euro equivalent values may not be similar. Also, the variation in the demand and supply of carbon offsetting in various countries keeps the carbon credit price unstable. Many times, it is left to the individual buyers and sellers to negotiate and determine the current price of carbon credits. The lack of information on the appropriate prices leaves the buyers and sellers in a dilemma about the timing and expectation of optimum price. But one good thing carbon pricing has done is that it has helped the common people to understand which products induce carbon emissions, and hence should be used sparingly, and it also provides incentives for the investors and innovators to produce and invest only in low carbon products, thus benefiting them financially.
Many individuals are taking up this issue as a moral duty and are calculating their carbon footprints to understand and buy the required carbon credits. This trend is gradually rising, but what is needed is global awareness! Until and unless all the developed countries take up this issue seriously and proper international laws are made, carbon credit concept will not help in minimizing the emissions on a large extent. Accepted that many international organizations are working towards the carbon neutrality goal, but stringent punitive laws will go a long way in ensuring that global warming is dealt with.
The heavily anticipated (before its start) Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in 2009 fell flat on its face. Then the Cancun Conference last year zoomed past without any significant achievement. An expected progress meant for taking the world beyond Kyoto Protocol didn't materialize, and frankly, is nowhere in sight. The whole world is waiting for the responsible countries to stand up and take action. A catastrophe is waiting to happen alongside. If the global warming issue is not taken care of within a short period of time, all the carbon credits price and buy-sell brouhaha will amount to nothing, and we may be staring at a bleak future. I imagined to end this article optimistically, but I cannot help in being cynical about the whole issue.
Friday, August 3, 2012
BHUBANESWAR: At a time when the alleged rape of a girl in Pipili area of Puri district has occupied media limelight, another alleged victim has created ripples in political circles by contesting the panchayat polls.
Sujata Jal, who was allegedly gang-raped by then Paikmal block chairman Mahesh Agarwal and his associates on May 10, 2008, is in the fray for a zilla parishad member seat from Rajboodasambar seat III from Padampur subdivision of Bargarh district, 400 km from the state capital. Bargarh district has 34 ZP member seats. Rajboodasambar is called Bargarh ZP Zone 31.
Agarwal and five of his aides allegedly raped Sujata after Agarwal promised her the job of an anganwadi worker. One of the accused includes Kunal Bariha, the nephew of former minister and Padampur MLA Bijay Ranjan Singh Bariha of the BJD. The incident had created a huge political storm and all the accused were remanded in judicial custody.
"I drew inspiration from BSP chief and Uttar Pradesh chief minister Mayawati. I am thankful to the party for giving me a ticket," Jal said, adding that if she wins she will fight for justice and dignity for the downtrodden.
Pitted against the might of Sumitra Singh Seth of BJD, Saraswati Kalu (BJP), Manorama Gingra (Congress) and independent Panchami Suna, Jal hopes she will clinch the seat. "I have been receiving overwhelming response from people. They are fed up with the trio of BJP, BJD and Congress," she said. The area has been traditionally a BJD stronghold.
The constituency, reserved for women, goes to poll on February 11, the first date of polling for the three-tier panchayat elections in the state.
BSP spokesperson Sunil Agarwal said Sujata's entering the poll fray in itself has been a befitting reply on the perpetrators of the crime on her. "She will definitely win if people's response is any indication," Agarwal said.
Politicians of other parties are nervous. "The alleged crime on her definitely draws people's sympathy on her. But it is too early to predict where the votes will swing," said a former MLA in Bargarh district.
Two Kapoor sisters, Karisma Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor are going to clash at the box-office. Karisma Kapoor is back to work after a long hiatus. Mother of two, Karisma is back with ‘Dangerous Ishq’. Reema Kagti’s ‘Talaash’ is Kareena Kapoor the reining queen of Bollywood’s next release It is expected that the two Kapoor sisters will clash at the box-office. Their film is expected to release at the same time.
‘Talaash’ will hit the theatre on June 1, 2012 and ‘Dangerous Ishq’ is expected to release around the same time. Risk over Karisma is quite high. It is her comeback pad and she needs to be excellent. It’s very important that her film should do well for keeping her Bollywood career running. Kareena is already a hit star. After two back to back hit, audience are looking forward for her next release. Another major factor of ‘Talaash’ is Aamir Khan.
Karisma and Kareena are very close to each other and both appreciated each other at an interview. Obviously, one won’t like to see the downfall of the other.
Carbon credits help you to offset the carbon dioxide emission you cause. This article explains how to buy carbon credits to help deal with the larger problem of climate change. Read on to know more.
Climate change is a catastrophe-in-waiting. Global warming is just the start of the major after-effects. All the changes in the atmosphere, be it hotter or cooler temperatures, the increase in sea levels, melting of glaciers or the more-than-frequent hurricanes, are all, primarily, a result of the increased carbon-dioxide levels in the atmosphere. And you, me and every person on this planet is responsible for this. It is not that we have a choice! That is the grim part. Everything we use nowadays is an industry-made product. Even if you drive a car for ten minutes per day, you contribute to the increase of carbon dioxide.
Now, we cannot change our lifestyles all of a sudden to minimize the damage we are causing to nature. But what we can do is, we can make sure that the carbon dioxide we emit in the atmosphere is offset somewhere else, so that we can at least get rid of the guilt-factor and help effect a change, however small it can be. This change can be brought about by buying carbon credits. In this article, we will see in detail how to buy carbon credits, and how it helps in the larger cause.
Carbon credits are, basically, offsets which you purchase to achieve carbon neutrality. It means you save the same amount of carbon from being emitted somewhere else, which you have directly or indirectly emitted. They are measured in terms of per ton of carbon dioxide emitted. Carbon credits price varies from $15 to $40 per ton based upon the variation in the demand and supply of the carbon credits. This price is volatile, given the global exchange of carbon credits and the currency dynamics involved. If you are based in the USA, carbon offsetting for you can be done through any solar power project based in the Middle East or forestation done in Australia. Carbon credits have added a new dimension to our everyday lives, helping us to understand which products should be used and avoided, given the amount of carbon emission they cause.
How to Buy Carbon Credits
The average carbon footprint (amount of carbon you emit) of an American is around 19 to 20 tons of carbon dioxide per year. But since this is an average value, you should calculate your carbon footprint before buying carbon credits. There are many websites, which can help you to calculate your carbon footprint simply by asking you the daily miles you travel by your car, quantity of fuel you use, your electricity and gas usage, your airplane travel and so on. After this calculation, you can buy carbon credits online to offset your carbon emission. Many carbon credit providers like Carbonfund, The Climate Trust, TerraPass sell carbon credits online, and you can see their comparisons on websites like Carbon Catalog and EcoBusinessLinks, so as to decide where you need to buy it, so that your purchase has an effective designated impact. You can simply buy the carbon credits using your credit card or PayPal.
The money collected from you is allocated to various projects supported by the provider like solar power, geothermal power, wind power projects, as also for biomass combustion and forestation. Large businesses, who have a very high percentage of carbon emissions, can decide how their carbon credits are used. It means they can have a say on which kind of carbon saving project their funds will support. Individuals do not have such a choice, but they can certainly check the authenticity of the project from the carbon credits' provider.
You need to check whether these projects are certified according to industry standards and verified by third parties. Some of these standards include the UN Clean Development Mechanism, Environmental Resources Trust, Voluntary Carbon Standard, Green-e Climate and California Climate Action Registry. Also check whether your offset provider is open about its management and ethos. Ensure the provider explains the money spent on various projects by getting his portfolio audited on a regular basis. A financial audit ensures the designated usage of your money. As I said above, the carbon credit pricing can vary a great deal due to differential project costs and administrative overheads. Check if the pricing is justified through comparison with other credit providers.
Knowing how to buy carbon credits is not that difficult, although you need to ensure how your money is allocated to different projects and check their authenticity. Our simple step of buying carbon credits and helping lower carbon emissions can be a stepping stone for the change we can bring about. Your example can trigger and convince other people around you to do the same. We have a responsibility towards nature, and particularly towards the air we breathe in. So go ahead, calculate your carbon footprint and buy those carbon credits, to bring about a positive difference in the world we inhabit!
Thursday, August 2, 2012
The popularity of “green” architecture has most definitely been on the rise in recent years, and this townhouse in Tribeca is the perfect example of how style and Earth-friendly design can happily co-exist. The home features a unique geothermal climate system which controls the heating, cooling, and water heating. The home was completed in 2002 by architect John Petrarca who lived there with his wife, but he sadly died the year following its completion. In addition to its forward-thinking geothermal system, the house boasts over 6,000 square feet of space and five stories.
|Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano|
Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano
The new Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano sprints from 0 to 100 km/h in an astonishing 3.7 seconds and boasts a top speed in excess of 330 km/h. However, it is still the new model's uniquely innovative content that guarantees superior driving pleasure, handling and sportiness.
Fiorano after the circuit Ferrari uses to hone the performance of its track and road cars; GTB as in Gran Turismo Berlinetta after the most famous Ferrari berlinettas ever built; and 599 to reflect the displacement of its V12 engine divided by 10. The stunning new all-aluminium two-seater that Ferrari unveiled at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show is summed up rather succinctly by its own name and delivers everything that this promises. The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano, in fact, sets a new benchmark of excellence in the sports car world.
This new model was designed with several specific objectives in mind: to surpass the intense driving pleasure of such renowned models as the Ferrari F40, to guarantee stunning performance courtesy of its highly innovative content and technology transfers from the F1 single-seaters, and to deliver superior standards of roominess, comfort, ergonomics and safety. The result is the absolute pinnacle of achievement in terms of thoroughbred Ferrari sportiness and technology.
THE MUSIC OF THE V12 CREATED FOR THE ENZO
The technical specification of the engine speaks for itself: 5999 cm3 displacement, a specific power output of 103 hp/litre (a first for a naturally aspirated production engine of this displacement).
2006 Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano
Twin overhead camshafts per cylinder bank boast continuously variable timing on both inlet and exhaust cams to optimise torque delivery and drivability at both low and high revs. A twin-plate, low inertia clutch in unit with the engine also helps lower the centre of gravity. Chain driven distribution reduces noise and is maintenance-free. The Ferrari 599's engine delivers a maximum torque of 608 Nm at 5,600 rpm and means that the car pulls well at all engine speeds. The new model's breathtaking sportiness is due in part to record maximum revs for an engine of this displacement (apart from the Ferrari Enzo). Its maximum power output is 620 hp at 7,600 rpm with a maximum engine speed of 8,400 rpm. Particular attention was also paid to fuel consumption which is the same as in the previous model, under similar use, despite a significant leap in performance. Development work for the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano also focused specifically on the distinctive sound the engine makes, reducing mechanical resonance in favour of a pure V12 soundtrack from both the intake manifold and the exhaust system. This not only enhances driving pleasure but makes for a quieter ride inside the cabin itself.
The new generation F1 gearbox that debuts on the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano is a further development of the F1 gearbox used on all of the models in the Ferrari range. The F1-SuperFast system enhances the car's high-performance capabilities by using the elastic energy within the transmission components, together with the integrated electronic engine and gearbox management programmes, to speed up gear change times. The various stages involved in changing the gears are implemented in parallel (non-sequentially) and this results in exceptionally fast gear shifting. In fact, it cuts overall gear-shift times to just 100 ms. The system is integrated with the manettino and the driver is still free to choose between either the Automatic mode or the Launch Control setting which offers smoother starts from standstill.
The experience built up over thousands of kilometres of Formula 1 testing and racing by Ferrari's drivers is now being made available to ensure clients have access to cutting-edge road-holding, safety and stability. The system continually monitors the speed of both front and rear wheels and features predictive software that estimates the maximum available grip in advance, compares this information with the vehicle dynamics model stored in the control system, and adjusts its reactions to suit, optimising traction by modulating power delivery.
The result is easier, smoother high-performance driving, thanks to maximum grip out of bends (a 20% increase in acceleration compared to a traditional traction and stability control system) and predictable handling even in extreme situations. The F1-Trac is integrated with the manettino which adapts the car's behaviour to the driving conditions: the Sport setting provides the best balance between stability and performance on the road while Race ensures clients maximum performance combined with consistently brilliant handling. The F1-Trac system is another world first for Ferrari.
SCM (MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL SUSPENSION CONTROL) SUSPENSION
Unlike traditional oleodynamic systems, magnetorheological (MR) fluid suspension systems react instantly to road conditions and driver inputs, thanks to the fact that the dampers use a fluid the viscosity of which is modified by applying an electronically controlled magnetic field.
What this means in practice is greatly improved body control which in turn directly improves handling and road-holding thanks to optimal tyre grip in all road conditions. The result is a much safer and more enjoyable driving experience courtesy of reduced roll and greater control when accelerating, braking and cornering. This is the very first time the SCM (Magnetorheological Suspension Control) suspension has been used on a high performance sports car.
EVOLUTION OF THE MANETTINO
The steering wheel-mounted manettino vehicle dynamics control switch, originally developed for the 1996 Formula 1 season and introduced on a road car with the Ferrari F430, has been taken a step further for the new Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano.
The manettino integrates the stability and F1-Trac traction control systems, the F1-SuperFast gearbox and the SCM (Magnetorheological Suspension Control) fluid suspension. This means that the driver can select the correct setting for the grip conditions at any given time. The manettino's readouts are displayed on the new on-board Multi Display unit so that the information important to each specific setting is instantly available to the driver (e.g. lap times, tyre temperature and pressure or trip computer readouts.)
Lengthy testing in the wind tunnel at Ferrari plus various simulations have yielded exceptional results in terms of both downforce and drag. The optimisation of the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano's underbody, the rear diffuser and flying buttresses have resulted in an aerodynamic load of just 160 kg at 300 km/h. Similarly, the Cd - drag coefficient - is just 0.336.
STYLING, ACCESSORIES AND PERSONALISATION OPTIONS
The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano is a strikingly sculptural car. The design is so supple, in fact, that each new angle brings something new to light. Its forms say it all about its extreme sportiness yet still retain a unique sophistication.
A balance has been struck in the interior between the car's sporty vocation and the feeling of intimacy and safety that only skilled hand-crafting and detailed personalisation can achieve. The passenger areas of the car are trimmed in sumptuous leather while the driver area and controls boast more high-tech detailing in carbon-fibre and aluminium.
In addition to the steering wheel and manettino, the central rev counter with a choice of red or yellow background and solid aluminium passenger controls, the new Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano also boasts attractive new styling cues including a central grip to provide extra support for the passenger and new adaptive racing seats featuring carbon-fibre side rests. Other standard accessories include front bi-xenon headlamps and rear LED lights, dusk and rain sensors, dual-zone climate control, electrically adjustable steering-wheel column, hideaway radio/CD player and key with integrated volumetric anti-theft device with motion sensors.
The Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano also benefits from an already vast choice of personalisation options available for every Ferrari model. Four areas are covered by this programme: Racing and Track, Exteriors and Colours, Interior and Materials, Equipment and Travel.
The Racing and Track options include CCM (Carbon Ceramic Material) brakes, 20" Challenge one-piece rims with run-flat tyres, four-point harnesses and a cockpit roll-bar. The Scuderia wheel arch shields and coloured brake calipers complete the look for sportier clients.
Interior and Materials options include a new Enzo Ferrari-inspired carbon-fibre steering wheel with LED rev display which can be specified along with a special carbon-fibre trim kit for the door panels, instrument panel, gear stick surround and sill kick panels. Various types of leather trim are also available for the seats and interior too. Travel and Equipment accessories include front and rear parking sensors, iPod-friendly set-up, satellite anti-theft system and a luggage set specially tailored to fit this model.
Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano Technical Specifications
Dimensions and weight
Overall length: 183.7 in
Overall width: 77.2 in
Height: 52.6 in
Wheelbase: 108.3 in
Front track: 66.5 in
Rear track: 63.7 in
Dry weight: 3482 lb
Kerb weight: 3722 lb
Boot (trunk) capacity: 11.3 cu ft
Fuel tank capacity: 27.7 US gal / 23.1 UK gal
Weight distribution: 47% front / 53% rear
Front: 13.9 x 1.3 in
Rear: 12.9 x 1.1 in
Type: 65° V12
Bore/Stroke: 3.62 x 2.96 in
Unit displacement: 30.51 cu in (5999 cm3)
Total displacement: 366.08 cu in
Compression ratio: 11.2:1
Maximum power: 456 kW (620 CV) @ 7600 rpm
Maximum torque: 608 Nm (448 lbft) @ 5600 rpm
Maximum rpm: 8400 rpm (with limiter)
Specific output: 103 hp/l
Gearbox: (six gears + reverse) Manual or F1
Tyre Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System TPTMS CST Stability and Traction Control with F1-Trac
Front: 245/40 19"
Rear: 305/35 20"
Magnetorheological damping Control (SCM)
Top speed: 205+ mph (330+ km/h)
0-62 mph (0-100 km/h): 3.70 s
0-124 mph (0-200 km/h): 11 s
Urban cycle: 32.7 l/100 km; CO2: 750 g/km
Extra urban cycle: 14.7 l/100 km; CO2: 337 g/km
Combined: 21.3 l/100 km; CO2: 490 g/km
|"Gate of Hell" (1965-69) by Atsuko Tanaka COLLECTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ART, OSAKA © RYOJI ITO|
Atsuko Tanaka (1932-2005) was a member of the avant-garde Gutai Art Association whose experimental work with nonphysical materials — such as light, sound and time — garnered her much attention during the mid-1950s.
"Gate of Hell" (1965-69) by Atsuko Tanaka COLLECTION OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF ART, OSAKA © RYOJI ITO
The Museum of Contemporary Art Tokyo has joined forces with The Japan Foundation, Britain's IKON Gallery and Espai d'Art Contemporani de Castello of Spain to bring together more than 100 works representative of Tanaka's innovative, Abstract Expressionist style. Included are reproductions of her two most-famous works, "Work (Bell)" and "Electric Dress"; till May 6.
|Selling Carbon Credits|
This article explains the mechanism of buying and selling carbon credits, to help you understand in detail about the critical issues of carbon emissions and the rising importance of the carbon credits market. Have a look...
Our climate is changing. The Earth's climate has, in fact, warmed by 1.1 to 1.6 degrees Fahrenheit since the industrial revolution. People look at this and say: Oh, that is not very much. In fact, it is very much, and it changes the dynamic. It impacts species. It kills some. It diminishes the carbon sink of the ocean. It does a number of things. ~ Diane Feinstein
Feinstein's views point to a larger picture, which are a result of an amalgam of smaller everyday things we use to emit carbon in the atmosphere. The average carbon emission of an American is about 19 to 20 tons of carbon dioxide, which is much larger compared to other countries. The rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have prompted many serious complications to occur in the entire world. So, it has become imperative to minimize the emission levels. The introduction of the emissions trading system over the years has not just become a powerful policy instrument on the international diplomatic platform, but also helps us to reduce these emissions. Clarity, compliance, efficiency and price signal are the main pillars on which the emissions system stand. Carbon credits are the currency-equivalent in carbon trading. Let us see what is the meaning of carbon credits and the mechanism of selling carbon credits, in detail.
The unit of carbon credit is one metric ton of carbon dioxide. It is primarily used as an offset to achieve carbon neutrality. For instance, consider that you have a business, which has a very low percentage of carbon emissions as compared to other similar businesses. What you can do is, you can help the other business to offset their carbon emission by selling them the carbon credits. Suppose you sell 5 carbon credits to that business, it means that you are helping them to offset their 5 tons of extra carbon emission. The carbon credits price fluctuates, given the market dynamics of demand and supply, globally varying pricing and currency structure, etc. One carbon credit costs around $15 to $40. Now, let us understand who can sell carbon credits.
How to Buy and Sell Carbon Credits
Buying Carbon Credits
Nowadays, it has become an extremely easy process, given the number of carbon credit providers like Carbonfund, The Climate Trust, and TerraPass, selling carbon credits online. These providers sell you the carbon credits and use the money generated thereby to allocate to various projects supported by the provider, like solar power, geothermal power, wind power projects, biomass combustion, forestation, etc. You are just required to calculate your carbon footprint (the amount of carbon you emit) through simple calculations provided on the same website using the data like your electricity or fuel usage. Then, you will have to buy the carbon credits using your credit card or PayPal, to help offset the carbon you emit.
Selling Carbon Credits
First, you need to determine whether your business can help in offsetting the carbon emission of other businesses. You need to have very low carbon emissions for the same output produced in comparison to others. Then you have to approach the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to get the membership to be eligible for selling carbon credits. This carbon exchange functions similar to a normal stock exchange, where according to the market fluctuations, carbon credits can be bought and sold. Your business is audited and monitored after a certain interval of time to check for the authenticity of your claim of carbon offsetting, to the number of carbon credits you offer for purchase on the carbon stock exchange. There is a CCX electronic trading platform through which the trades are conducted. You can trade your carbon credits with other businesses through CCX. It is advised that you trade the credits with large companies, so that you can get a good price.
Now, many of you may be wondering, "Can I sell carbon credits?" The answer is yes, if you are a farmer or a large land-holder. The government has an agricultural carbon credit scheme to help you in this regard. The cropland must be farmed with no-till or conservation tillage practices to qualify for carbon credits, as not tilling up the land each season means the carbon dioxide in the soil is not released into the atmosphere. Also, according to recent news, under a draft legislation for the government's carbon farming initiative (CFI), farmers, forest growers and land-holders will be able to earn credits through planting trees, improving the agricultural practices such as Savannah fire management, reducing grazing levels and reducing the fertilizer emissions. They can sell these carbon credits locally and internationally, at the current price on the climate exchange, for activities that increase carbon sequestration.
As for other individuals, even if there are no particular provisions for selling carbon credits, you can certainly make a difference to the environment by ensuring that you do not emit more carbon and use those products which cause lesser carbon emission. The carbon trading mechanism, thus, can go a long way in helping us to achieve the goal of carbon neutrality and build up a parallel carbon market to the global crude oil market, as was envisaged many years ago.
Wednesday, August 1, 2012
The Mushroom House in the Black’s Beach area of La Jolla, California is one of those landscape features that you just get used to if you live nearby, but if you’re seeing it for the first time it strikes you as incredibly strange. Designed by Dale Naegle in the 1960s, the house was built for Sam Bell of Bell’s Potato Chips. The unusual design of the house was meant to withstand earthquakes and inclement weather, all while looking futuristic…well, futuristic for 1968, anyway.
The United States should deploy ships, step up covert activities and sharpen its rhetoric to make more credible the threat of a U.S. military strike to stop Iran's nuclear program, a bipartisan group said on Wednesday.
Former U.S. politicians, generals and officials said in a report that the best chance of stopping Iran's suspected pursuit of nuclear weapons was to make clear American willingness to use force, although it stopped short of advocating military action.
The report by a Bipartisan Policy Center (BPC) task force of Democrats, Republicans and independents is to be formally issued on Wednesday and comes amid speculation about the possibility of an Israeli military strike against Iran.
There is little evidence to suggest that U.S. President Barack Obama has any significant interest in the possibility of a military strike against Iran, though his administration has repeatedly said that all options are on the table.
To a lesser degree there has also been debate about a U.S. attack, an idea advocated by former Pentagon defense planner Matthew Kroenig in his recent Foreign Affairs Magazine article, "Time to Attack Iran: Why a Strike Is the Least Bad Option."
The BPC report's central thesis is that to persuade Iran to address questions about its nuclear program via negotiations, economic sanctions must be accompanied by a credible threat of military attack against Iran's nuclear facilities.
"The United States needs to make clear that Iran faces a choice: it can either abandon its nuclear program through a negotiated arrangement or have its program destroyed militarily by the United States or Israel," said the report, entitled "Meeting the Challenge: Stopping the Clock."
Tensions between Iran and the West have grown as the United States and its European allies have tightened economic sanctions by targeting the oil exports that drive the Iranian economy.
The United States, and many of its European allies, suspect that Iran is using its civilian nuclear program as a cover to develop the atomic bomb. Iran denies this, saying that its program is solely for civilian uses such as power generation.
The BPC is a nonprofit policy group founded by prominent Republicans and Democrats that seeks to promote policy-making that can draw support from both major U.S. political parties. Among its specific recommendations, the report calls for strengthening the United States "declaratory policy" to make clear its willingness to use force rather than permit Iran to acquire nuclear weapons; To intensify covert activities by U.S. and foreign intelligence agencies to disrupt Iran's nuclear program; To bolster the presence of the U.S. Fifth Fleet in the Gulf and the Gulf of Oman by deploying an additional carrier battle group and minesweepers off Iran, conducting broad military exercises in the region with allies, and prepositioning supplies for the possibility of military action against Iran; To strengthen the ability of U.S. allies such as Saudi Arabia, the world's largest oil exporter, to ship oil out of the region without using the Strait of Hormuz, which Iran has threatened to close in retaliation for Western sanctions, and to amplify U.S. efforts to strengthen the militaries of countries in the region such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and the United Arab Emirates through arms sales.
Should these steps fail to dissuade Iran from its suspected pursuit of nuclear weapons, the report urges the United States to consider a "quarantine" to block refined petroleum imports by Iran, which is heavily dependent on gasoline refined abroad.
As a last resort, the group asserts that the U.S. military has the ability to launch "an effective surgical strike against Iran's nuclear program."
Obama's broader foreign policy has sought to disentangle the U.S. military from its commitments in the Muslim world. He decided to withdraw all U.S. troops from Iraq last year and aims to wind up the U.S. combat mission in Afghanistan in 2014.
Obama opposed his predecessor George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq, a decision the Bush administration chiefly justified by citing intelligence that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. No such weapons were subsequently found.
Without explicitly calling for an attack on Iran, the report says such a strike would include an air campaign of several weeks to target key military and nuclear installations, accompanied by the U.S. special forces on the ground.
"A military strike would delay Iran's acquisition of nuclear capability but not eliminate it," the report said. "Still, policymakers need to consider whether delaying Iran's program in the short term would allow Washington to take advantage of that space to stop Iran's nuclear program altogether," it added without explaining how this might happen.
"It is also possible that the delays and increased costs that a devastating strike would impose on Iran's nuclear program might be followed by a different set of dynamics that would cause or compel the Iranian leadership to change course," it said.
The report acknowledged a strike would carry many risks, including higher oil prices, possible Iranian retaliation against U.S. military installations, support of "terrorist" operations against U.S. interests and potential attacks on Iraq.
Former U.S. Senator Chuck Robb, a Virginia Democrat, told Reuters the group chose not to explicitly advocate military action in part because it did not want to turn what he described as a "reasoned, thoughtful approach into, 'This is bombs away."
Having repeatedly said that a nuclear-armed Iran would be unacceptable to the United States, Robb said that to be unwilling to take military action would undercut U.S. credibility.
"Our credibility is very much on the line," he said. "We believe that we have to be credible with respect to the kinetic option. We need to provide evidence that we are preparing to take that option if necessary."
Mumbai: Kareena Kapoor doesn't get jealous easily. The actress says she is happy and content in her relationship with beau Saif Ali Khan.
Kareena shared her sentiments in a casual tete-a-tete with her friend and "Ek Main Aur Ekk Tu" producer Karan Johar for "A date with Ek Main aur Ekk Tu" - a show to be simulcast Feb 4 on ETC, Zee TV, Zing, Zee Cafe, Zee Studio, Zee Trendz and Zee Khana Khazana.
Johar asked Kareena - "How do you feel when you see Saif in an intimate scene with another hot actress? Say in 'Race 2', Saif has a bare-body scene with a Deepika in bikini, what would be your first thought?"
To which, Kareena replied: "I'd be like 'Wow! How hot Saif looks'," and added: "I know how he looks bare bodied!"
On a serious note, she said: "I am quite secure in my relationship with Saif and though I don't want to say too much too soon, I am quite content!"
Recently Saif admitted how he thinks Kareena looks best only with him, and not with any of the other Khans of Bollywood that she has worked with.
|Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder|
Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder
Two years after the launch of the Coupé version of the Gallardo, Automobili Lamborghini had presented the Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show.
The Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder is not just an open-top version of the Coupé, but is a completely new model. It has an attractive new design and a unique system for opening and closing the fabric roof that utilises the engine compartment to store the folded roof.
The Lamborghini Centro Stile and engineers from the Research and Development team have worked in close partnership to develop this new design and to bring these clean and sharp lines on the road.
The original design vision for the Gallardo was created in the year 2000 and this vision continues with the "open" version.
The dimensions of the Gallardo, combined with its competitive performance targets, ensure the car has an athletic compactness. The long wheelbase complemented by short overhangs dynamise its appearance. The Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder features typical and unique mono-volume proportions, which integrate the Lamborghini design attributes of purism, athleticism and sharpness.
The cab-forward cockpit is integrated in the body by a strongly-slanted front screen and tensed pillars. The complex surfacing is intersected by crisp graphics and its detailing, which is orientated towards optimum cooling, evokes a strong aeronautical influence in its proportions and formal language.
2006 Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder
The roof raising/lowering system of the Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder is based on an electronic control system with electrohydraulic actuators and comprises the following elements:
hood made from black fabric
electronic control system, integrated in the car's CAN-BUS network, that controls the movement of the roof
engine bonnet (that also functions as a hood cover) made from carbon fibre
six hydraulic cylinders (four to operate the hood and two to operate the bonnet)
two electric actuators (one to lock the catch at the front of the roof and one to release the bonnet catch)
electric motor to raise and lower the rear window
The roof raising/lowering mechanism is extremely simple to operate by way of two push-buttons on the centre of the dashboard. And the whole operation takes just over 20 seconds.
The rear screen moves automatically while the roof is being opened or closed. This automatically-controlled movement always returns the screen to the raised position. The driver can also choose to have the screen in the lowered position (also with the roof raised) by pressing the appropriate button on the dashboard.
There is also a "service function" that positions the roof so as to allow access to the engine.
Great care has been taken over the structural design of the Gallardo Spyder, which of course complies fully with all the relevant safety standards.
The space frame has been reinforced in the area of the sills and the A pillars have been strengthened with the adoption of an automatic Roll Over protection system (comprising two "pop-ups") integrated with the air bag system.
All these solutions, which place Lamborghini at the very forefront of open top car design, were driven by the need to present to the public a true spyder characterised by a pure design.
Engine and Performance
The new Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder features a number of important modifications to the original engine and transmission from the Coupé.
The 10-cylinder 4961 cc propulsion unit now develops 520 hp (382 kW) at 8,000 rpm.
The six-speed gearbox now has lower ratios (1st gear is 27% lower, 2nd gear is 13%, 3rd / 4th / 5th gears are all 6% lower, while 6th gear is 3.5% lower), which create a more dynamic performance.
The steering is also more direct and precise and the suspension has been recalibrated.
Like the other models in the range, the Gallardo Spyder also benefits from aluminium bodywork and features permanent four-wheel drive.
And finally, its performance figures: the Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder - which complies with EURO 4 homologation standards - reaches a top speed of 314 km/h with the roof up and 307 km/h with the roof down, accelerating from 0 to 100 km/h in 4.3 seconds.
Amongst its standard equipment the following items are particularly worthy of mention:
power steering fluid cooler (for sports use)
automatic door locking at speeds of over 15 km/h
Lamborghini Multimedia System as standard (not available for Japan)
There are also new body colours available. In addition to those current range of Gallardo colours, the Gallardo Spyder is also available in the two special colours: Celeste Phoebe (light blue) and Verde Picus (green). There are also new colours also for the leather interiors: Marrone Janus (brown) as the main colour, Bianco Polar (white) as a contrast colour, and carpets in Marrone Janus (brown), Rosso Centaurus (red) or Arancio Leonis (orange).
There is also a range of optional equipment that makes the Lamborghini Gallardo Spyder even more exclusive, including:
video camera on the rear spoiler (available also on the Coupé version)
new colour/perforated leather combinations for the dashboard, seats and door trim
contrast colour stitching
Other optional equipment (also on the Coupé version) includes:
a choice of colour and leather and/or Alcantara combinations
anti-theft system, heated mirrors, onboard computer, protective cover, "coming home" function, e-gear, set of two suitcases, lifting system, navigation system, coloured Lamborghini logo on wheel rims, rear spoiler, smokers' version
various packages to customise the car: leather package, carbon fibre package, branding package, winter package, travel set and sports set-up.
silver Callisto wheels
heated electric seats
coloured brake calipers
Emission trading refers to an administrative perspective for controlling pollution by facilitating economic incentives to achieve a decline in the emission of pollutants. Cap and trade is another name for emission trading. When this trading happens with regard to the emission of carbon dioxide, it pertains to carbon trading.